Assessing Samoa’s Response to COVID-19 Pandemic

E sili le puipuia nai lō le togafitia.

Prevention is better than cure

1) Introduction

Samoa is a developing island nation located at the heart of the South Pacific Ocean and one of the few countries in the world that has had no confirmed cases of COVID-19. It was one of the first countries to implement protective measures against COVID-19, beginning with strict travel restrictions and requirements in January 2020. Samoa’s relative preparedness and proactive response to the pandemic has been attributed to the fact that the country was still in the process of recovering from the 2019 measles epidemic. The measles epidemic affected over five thousand Samoans and claimed the lives of eighty-three people, the majority of whom were children under the age of two.

The remote locations of the Pacific Island countries are often described as a hindrance to their participation in the global economy. However, this remoteness has given the Pacific Islands an advantage in preventing COVID-19 from reaching their shores. Several issues limit Samoa’s capacity to respond effectively to COVID-19. Like most countries in the South Pacific region, Samoa is a small country with limited resources and healthcare system capacity. It is also vulnerable to natural disasters and the effects of climate change.

2) Implemented Measures

A) State of Emergency

On 20 March 2020, the Head of State, Afioga Tuimalealiifano Vaaletoa Sualauvi II, declared a State of Emergency in response to COVID-19 and issued an Order, effectively closing down the country both internationally and domestically. Schools, church services, sporting events and other public gatherings as well as inter-island travel were cancelled. All gatherings were restricted to no more than five attendees. Strict limitations were placed on transportation, retail stores, markets and supermarkets and places of employment.

The Samoa Police Force is responsible for enforcing Emergency Orders. Initially, due to the failure of the first Order to define the terms ‘small shops’ and ‘supermarket’, police were confused about the extent of their powers. Local media have accused the Government of inconsistently enforcing the rules contained in the Emergency Orders; these accusations have been dismissed by the Chairman of the National Emergency Operation Centre. Police reportedly shut down a fundraiser and sent officers to count the number of church attendees in congregations around Samoa but did not enforce these rules at sporting events or during voter registrations. Between March and September 2020, the Police collected about $45,000 tala in fines and arrested and charged 294 people for breaching Emergency Orders.

The World Health Organisation recognises that during times of emergency, it might be necessary to limit certain fundamental rights. The Constitution of Samoa protects a number of these rights: art 6 mandates that no person shall be unlawfully deprived of their personal liberty while art 13 provides that all citizens have the right to freedom of speech, peaceful assembly and association as well as freedom of movement. These rights may be limited in particular circumstances, such as in the event of an emergency or for the protection of public health.

Although the State of Emergency was extended to 26 October 2020, the Government has relaxed its internal lockdown rules: the limit on the number of people who may attend public gatherings increased, churches and schools have re-opened and business operation hours have steadily increased.

B) Economic Stimulus

COVID-19 poses a serious threat to Pacific Island economies. Samoa is particularly vulnerable as this is the second health crisis to affect the country in the same fiscal year. The pandemic has had a detrimental impact on two major drivers of the Samoan economy: tourism and remittances. Tourism is a main source of employment and accounts for up to 30% of the economic activity in Samoa. Overseas remittances, which constitute 15% of the Gross Domestic Product in Samoa, were also predicted to fall significantly as a result of lowered employment rates.

To address these economic issues, the Government introduced Phase I of its Stimulus Package of 66.3 million tala in April 2020. The first stimulus primarily focused on strengthening the public health response and providing relief to local households. In May 2020, the Government announced a further stimulus package of 83 million tala. The key features of the second stimulus package were: a dividend payout to members of the National Provident Fund; an increase in the pension; revitalization of the agricultural industry; an unemployment subsidy and training opportunities for those in the hospitality sector whose jobs were affected by COVID-19; debt relief for businesses; and assistance to non-government organisations that care for vulnerable groups.

Economists have warned that “stimulus packages can only be sustainable in the short term” and that Samoa, being one of the
islands with high debt levels, may face serious economic challenges in the long term.

C) Strengthening the Public Health System

The 2019 measles epidemic highlighted the need to strengthen the public health system. However, as a result of the measles epidemic, Samoa was also better placed to deal with COVID-19. As part of the measles response, communities received training on how to carry out public health outreach programs; health care workers received further training on immunization and proper reporting and recording; and thirty ventilators were provided by development partners and international emergency teams.

Samoa received the equipment needed to conduct COVID-19 tests in-country in May 2020. It also received over $53.4 million tala in financial assistance from its development partners and international organisations to aid in its COVID-19 response. Other forms of foreign assistance range from donations of medical, laboratory, testing and PPE equipment and materials, to training health staff in Samoa; to assisting in the repatriation of Samoan citizens stranded overseas; and to the donation of IT materials to assist the Government in conducting its daily affairs remotely.

One highlight of Samoa’s response has been its empowerment and inclusion of communities in the facilitation of quarantine for repatriated Samoans. The first community quarantine took place at Poutasi village, located on the southern coast of the main island of Upolu. One hundred and forty-eight Samoans were successfully quarantined in Poutasi. The support provided by the communities provided an innovative solution to the economic and administrative problems associated with organising quarantine facilities that were faced by the Government. This method of quarantine will also prove beneficial as more Samoans engaged in regional seasonal workers schemes return from Australia and New Zealand.

D) Communication

Another measure implemented by the Government was a nationwide communication campaign. The Government established two hotlines and helplines and has had an active web and social media presence. The Government also posts weekly video updates entitled “Taimi ma le Palemia” where Prime Minister Tuilaepa Dr. Sailele Malielegaoi gives updates on current affairs, including the Government’s response to COVID-19. Through the Ministry of Women, Community and Social Development and its partners, a COVID-19 Outreach Program, which aimed to educate community leaders on how to respond to COVID-19, was delivered to forty-nine districts across Samoa.

The Government’s COVID-19 approach has been commended by academics in Samoa who identified miscommunication of information as a key issue during the 2019 measles epidemic. However, more information regarding the Government’s COVID-19 response should be made publically available for transparency and accountability. Documents such as the National Avian and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan; the National Epidemic and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan; and the Sector Preparedness and Response Matrix for the Corona Virus Pandemic contain key information that should be made available to the public.

3) Issues with the Measures

A) Human rights issues

Numerous human rights issues arose in relation to the initial measures implemented as part of the Government’s response to the COVID-19 Pandemic, particularly: the right to return home and the right to privacy, dignity and non-discrimination. In February 2020, a group of eight Samoan citizens was refused entry into Samoa having transited through Singapore after receiving medical treatment in India. Although the group was eventually allowed to return to Samoa, the decision to refuse entry to its own citizens was arguably in contravention of art 12(4) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which provides that persons should not be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter their own country; however, in this particular case, the refusal of entry was justified on public health grounds. Further, in May 2020, the Government also received criticism for its refusal to repatriate four hundred Samoan seafarers who were stranded on ships in the Caribbean until the end of the pandemic. The seafarers have since requested assistance from the New Zealand Government. The repatriation of Samoan citizens continues with the Government approving repatriation flights for citizens stranded in the United States and Europe.

The right to privacy, dignity and non-discrimination was also an initial issue after the identity of the first suspected case of COVID-19 was disclosed by a local newspaper. The young woman and her family were subject to online abuse and threats after her name was published by the newspaper. The identification of suspected cases is seen as counter-productive to the public health response as the fear of discrimination could keep people from seeking medical attention. No further incidents of this nature have occurred.

B) Political Issues

The Government has been accused of exploiting the lockdown for its own political agendas on two occasions. First, the Samoa Observer has accused Prime Minister Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi for using emergency powers to push ‘his own ideological preoccupations by seeking to ban all commercial activity on Sundays’. In June, the Prime Minister reportedly asked for legislation to be drafted to prohibit or limit commercial activity on Sundays even after the State of Emergency has lifted. No policy reasons have been provided for this request aside from Christian rhetoric.

Secondly, the Government has received criticism for attempting to expedite key Constitutional amendments through Parliament during the State of Emergency without proper public consultation. Unlike some countries, Samoa’s constitution does not restrict constitutional amendments during exceptional times of crisis, such as a state of emergency. The proposed amendments were tabled in Parliament two days before the State of Emergency was declared and the subsequent lockdown imposed.

The amendments, which have been described as an attempt to “reflect Samoa in Samoa’s Constitution”, propose making the Land and Titles Court (a specialist court that uses Samoan custom to resolve disputes concerning customary land and matai or chiefly titles) autonomous through the creation of the Land and Titles Court of Appeal and Review. If passed, there will be two parallel court systems in Samoa: “one to deal with criminal and civil matters and the other with customary land and titles.” This also means that the judicial review of the decisions of the Land and Titles Court, which is currently done by the Supreme Court, will now be performed by the Land and Titles Court of Appeal.

Apart from the lack of wide public consultation on the bills before they passed their second readings in March 2020, other concerns include the potential impact on constitutional interpretation and fundamental rights, the ambiguous position of the new Land and Titles Court in the system of Government and the practicalities and workability of the new court system. There are also concerns that the amendments would allow the Government to influence the legal system as Land and Titles Court judges may be removed without cause. The controversial amendments have received wide criticism from numerous organisations both in Samoa and internationally, such as: the Samoan Judiciary, the Ombudsman, the former Head of State Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Efi, the International Bar Association’s Human Rights Institute and the Law Societies of Samoa, New Zealand and Australia.

In May 2020, a Special Parliamentary Committee was established and public consultations began in the villages around Samoa. There are doubts that holding public consultations would make a difference this late in the law-making process. Although the Committee has reported an increase in village support for the bills, its actions of advocating for or “selling” the bills has been labelled as “inappropriate and unethical” by the local media.

Lastly, the bills have also caused a divide among members of the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), which has governed Samoa since 1985. Party leader, Prime Minister Tuilaepa, called for the resignation of several HRPP Members of Parliament including his Deputy Prime Minister Fiame Naomi Mata’afa, after they questioned the bills during Parliamentary debates. These members, including Fiame Naomi Mata’afa subsequently resigned from the party; it will be interesting to see how this develops in the upcoming 2021 elections.

4) Conclusion

The COVID-19 pandemic has had widespread effects globally. As with most countries, the leaders of Samoa are learning as they go and are promptly finding solutions to issues that arise – a commendable feat. However, it has not been smooth sailing for Samoa’s COVID-19 response. Samoa has been widely criticised for its response, its alleged violation of certain fundamental human rights and how it has created a ‘constitutional crisis’ during a time of emergency. Although this narrative is one of criticism, it is made in the context of the Samoan Government prioritising the health and safety of its people above all else.

  1. As of 18 October 2020.
  2. Christine Rovoi ‘Coronavirus: Samoa’s preventative measures hitting travelers’ Radio NZ (online ed, Wellington, 30 January 2020).
  3. Government of Samoa ‘State of Emergency Declaration’ (press release, 20 March 2020).
  4. The definitions of the two terms were provided in subsequent Orders. Soli Wilson ‘Police give ok for shops “trading over counter”’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 7 April 2020); Joyetter Feagaimaali’i ‘Typing error gave supermarkets “extra trading hours”’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 21 June 2020).
  5. Samoa Observer Editorial Board ‘Police in churches: Government overrach or muddled policy?’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 31 August 2020); Joyetter Feagaimaali’i ‘Police, N.E.O.C at odds on emergency laws’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 2 October 2020). 
  6. Soli Wilson ‘Police, N.E.O.C. inactive on social distancing’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 10 October 2020).
  7. Approximately $23,900 AUD; Radio New Zealand ‘Close to 300 arrested in Samoa for breaking Covid-19 orders’ Radio New Zealand (online ed, Wellington, 20 April 2020); Adel Fruean ‘Police collect $45,000 in emergency breach fines’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 21 September 2020). 
  8. World Health Organisation, WHO Checklist for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Planning (2005).
  9. Constitution of the Independent State of Samoa 1960, arts 13 (3)(4) and 108 (2).
  10. International Monetary Fund, ‘Pacific Islands Threatened by COVID-19’ (press release, 27 May 2020)
  11. Approximately $35.2 million AUD.
  12. Approximately $44 million AUD; Government of Samoa ‘2020/21 Budget Address’ (press release, 26 May 2020).
  13. Odo Tevi ‘The Pacific’s economic response to COVID-19: Will it be sustainable?’ (23 April 2020) DevPolicyBlog <https://devpolicy.org/the-pacifics-economic-response-to-covid-19-will-it-be-sustainable-20200423-1/>.
  14. World Bank Samoa COVID-19 Emergency Response Project – Project Information Document (PID) (World Bank, Report No PIDC29249, April 2020) at 2.
  15. Government of Samoa, ‘Joint Media Release: Boosting COVID-19 Testing in Samoa’ (press release, 8 May 2020).
  16. Approximately $28.3 million AUD; Asian Development Bank ‘ADB provides $20 Million Grant to Help Samoa Respond to COVID-19’ (press release, 30 July 2020); Asian Development Bank ‘ADB provides $2.9 Million Assistance for Samoa’s COVID-19 Response’ (press release, 16 April 2020); World Bank ‘World Bank provides $5.1m for Samoa COVID-19 response’ (press release, 27 March 2020); World Bank ‘World Bank Provides Additional $3.4 Million for Samoa’s Fight against COVID-19’ (press release, 24 April 2020); International Monetary Fund ‘IMF Executive Board Approves a US$22.03 Million Disbursement to Samoa to Address the Covid-19 Pandemic’ (press release, April 2020). 
  17. UNICEF ‘New COVID-19 test kits and equipment to boost Samoa’s response to global pandemic’ (press release, 19 June 2020); Samoa Global News ‘Samoa receives over 2,000 COVID-19 Test Cartridges’ Samoa Global News (online ed, Samoa, 30 July 2020); Government of Samoa, ‘Boosting COVID-19 testing in Samoa’, above n 11.
  18. The fourteen day quarantine period for this group ended on Saturday, 1 August 2020; Radio New Zealand ‘Samoa govt allows community quarantine for repatriated seasonal workers’ Radio NZ (online ed, Wellington, 18 July 2020). 
  19. World Bank, Samoa COVID-19 Emergency Response Project, above n 10. 
  20. Literal translation: ‘Time with the Prime Minister’. 
  21. Hyunsook Suitaia ‘Govt. prepares the nation for coronavirus pandemic’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 12 July 2020
  22. Ramona Boodoosingh, Safua Akeli Amaama and Penelope Schoeffel, ‘A Perfect Storm: The Social and Institutional Contexts of Samoa’s 2019-2020 Measles Epidemic and Lessons Learned’ [2020] Journal of Samoan Studies 5 at 13. 
  23. Singapore had been added to the list of high-risk countries as the group were travelling from India; Lagipoiva Cherelle Jackson ‘Samoa turns away eight of its own citizens over coronavirus fears’ The Guardian (online ed, Samoa, 13 February 2020).
  24. United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights art 12 (4); Lagipoiva Cherelle Jackson, ‘Samoa turns away eight of its own citizens over coronavirus fears’, above n18. 
  25. Lagipoiva Cherelle Jackson ‘Samoans trapped at sea due to COVID-19 plead for right to return home’ The Guardian (online ed, Samoa, 20 May 2020).
  26. Radio New Zealand ‘Green light for repatriation flights to Samoa’ Radio New Zealand (online ed, Wellington, 15 October 2020).
  27. Soli Wilson ‘Woman suspected of coronavirus identified’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 19 March 2020); Sina Retzlaff ‘Samoa’s First Suspected Case Returns Negative and Speaks Out’ Samoa Global News (online ed, Samoa, 21 March 2020).
  28. Amnesty International ‘Pacific Countries must not use COVID-19 to Regress on Human Rights’ (press release, 15 April 2020). 
  29. Sapeer Mayron ‘Sunday trading bans need discussion: Pulotu’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 5 July 2020); Dan McGarry and Tess Newton Cain ‘Coronavirus in the Pacific: weekly briefing’ The Guardian (online ed, Vanuatu, 16 June 2020).
  30. Constitutional Amendment Bill 2020 (Samoa); Land and Titles Bill 2020 (Samoa); Judicature Bill 2020 (Samoa); Dominic Godfrey ‘Samoa Govt pushes major change under cloak of COVID-19 – law society’ Radio New Zealand (online ed, Wellington, 18 April 2020); Teuila Fuatai ‘Is Samoa using COVID-19 to push constitutional changes’ Newsroom NZ (online ed, Wellington, 7 May 2020).
  31. John Braddock ‘Samoan government amends constitution to elevate traditional “custom”’ (21 July 2020) World Socialist Website <www.wsws.org/en/articles/2020/07/21/samo-j21.html>.
  32. Anna Dziedzic ‘Debating constitutional change in Samoa’ (5 May 2020) The Interpreter <www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/debating-constitutional-change-samoa>;  Anna Dziedzic ‘Reflecting custom in a written constitution: Constitutional proposals in Samoa’ (26 May 2020) ConstitutionNet <http://constitutionnet.org/news/reflecting-custom-written-constitution-constitutional-proposals-samoa>.
  33. Anna Dziedzic, ‘Debating constitutional change in Samoa’, above n 26.
  34. Dylan Asafo ‘Opinion: Confronting Tyranny in Samoa’ Radio New Zealand (online ed, Wellington, 6 June 2020).
  35. Anna Dziedzic, above n 26.
  36. Mata’afa Keni Lesa ‘Why a Special Parliamentary Committee should and must not promote LTC bills’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 27 July 2020).
  37. Radio New Zealand ‘More ructions in Samoa’s ruling HRPP’ Radio NZ (online ed, Wellington, 27 May 2020).
  38. Radio New Zealand ‘Another dissenting Samoa MP sacked’ Radio NZ (online ed, Wellington, 7 July 2020); Lanuola Tusani Tupufia-Ah Tong ‘Deputy P.M. Fiame resigns from Cabinet’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 11 September 2020).
  39. Bibliography

    A Constitution
    1 Samoa
    • Constitution of the Independent State of Samoa 1960.
    B Legislation
    1 Samoa
    • Constitutional Amendment Bill 2020.
    • Judicature Bill 2020.
    • Land and Titles Bill 2020.
    C Treaties
    • United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, art 12 (4).
    D Reports
    • World Health Organisation, Measles Outbreak in the Pacific – Situation Report No. 11, (22 January 2020) at 4.
    E Other Resources
    1 Journal Articles
    • Ramona Boodoosingh, Safua Akeli Amaama and Penelope Schoeffel, ‘A Perfect Storm: The Social and Institutional Contexts of Samoa’s 2019-2020 Measles Epidemic and Lessons Learned’ [2020] Journal of Samoan Studies 5.
    2 Online Materials
    3 Newspaper Articles
    • Adel Fruean ‘Police collect $45,000 in emergency breach fines’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 21 September 2020).
    • Christine Rovoi ‘Coronavirus: Samoa’s preventative measures hitting travelers’ Radio NZ (online ed, Wellington, 30 January 2020).
    • Dan McGarry and Tess Newton Cain ‘Coronavirus in the Pacific: weekly briefing’ The Guardian (online ed, Vanuatu, 16 June 2020).
    • Dominic Godfrey ‘Samoa Govt pushes major change under cloak of COVID-19 – law society’ Radio New Zealand (online ed, Wellington, 18 April 2020).
    • Dylan Asafo ‘Opinion: Confronting Tyranny in Samoa’ Radio New Zealand (online ed, Wellington, 6 June 2020).
    • Hyunsook Suitaia ‘Govt. prepares the nation for coronavirus pandemic’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 12 July 2020).
    • Joyetter Feagaimaali’i ‘Police, N.E.O.C at odds on emergency laws’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 2 October 2020). Joyetter Feagaimaali’i ‘Typing error gave supermarkets “extra trading hours”’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 21 June 2020).
    • Lagipoiva Cherelle Jackson ‘Samoa turns away eight of its own citizens over coronavirus fears’ The Guardian (online ed, Samoa, 13 February 2020).
    • Lagipoiva Cherelle Jackson ‘Samoans trapped at sea due to COVID-19 plead for right to return home’ The Guardian (online ed, Samoa, 20 May 2020).
    • Lanuola Tusani Tupufia-Ah Tong ‘Deputy P.M. Fiame resigns from Cabinet’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 11 September 2020).
    • Mata’afa Keni Lesa ‘Why a Special Parliamentary Committee should and must not promote LTC bills’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 27 July 2020).
    • Radio New Zealand ‘Another dissenting Samoa MP sacked’ Radio NZ (online ed, Wellington, 7 July 2020).
    • Radio New Zealand ‘Close to 300 arrested in Samoa for breaking Covid-19 orders’ Radio New Zealand (online ed, Wellington, 20 April 2020).
    • Radio New Zealand ‘Green light for repatriation flights to Samoa’ Radio New Zealand (online ed, Wellington, 15 October 2020).
    • Radio New Zealand ‘More ructions in Samoa’s ruling HRPP’ Radio NZ (online ed, Wellington, 27 May 2020).
    • Radio New Zealand ‘Samoa govt allows community quarantine for repatriated
      seasonal workers’ Radio NZ (online ed,
      Wellington, 18 July 2020).
    • Samoa Global News ‘Samoa receives over 2,000 COVID-19 Test Cartridges’ Samoa Global News (online ed, Samoa, 30 July 2020). Samoa Observer Editorial Board ‘Police in churches: Government overrach or muddled policy?’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 31 August 2020).
    • Sapeer Mayron ‘Sunday trading bans need discussion: Pulotu’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 5 July 2020).
    • Sina Retzlaff ‘Samoa’s First Suspected Case Returns Negative and Speaks Out’ Samoa Global News (online ed, Samoa, 21 March 2020).
    • Soli Wilson ‘Police give ok for shops “trading over counter”’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 7 April 2020).
    • Soli Wilson ‘Police, N.E.O.C. inactive on social distancing’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 10 October 2020).
    • Soli Wilson ‘Woman suspected of coronavirus identified’ Samoa Observer (online ed, Samoa, 19 March 2020).
    • Teuila Fuatai ‘Is Samoa using COVID-19 to push constitutional changes’ Newsroom NZ (online ed, Wellington, 7 May 2020).
    4 Press Releases
    • Amnesty International ‘Pacific Countries must not use COVID-19 to Regress on Human Rights’ (press release, 15 April 2020).
    • Asian Development Bank ‘ADB provides $2.9 Million Assistance for Samoa’s COVID-19 Response’ (press release, 16 April 2020).
    • Asian Development Bank ‘ADB provides $20 Million Grant to Help Samoa Respond to COVID-19’ (press release, 30 July 2020).
    • Government of Samoa ‘2020/21 Budget Address’ (press release, 26 May 2020).
    • Government of Samoa ‘State of Emergency Declaration’ (press release, 20 March 2020).
    • Government of Samoa, ‘Joint Media Release: Boosting COVID-19 Testing in Samoa’ (press release, 8 May 2020).
    • International Monetary Fund ‘IMF Executive Board Approves a US$22.03 Million Disbursement to Samoa to Address the Covid-19 Pandemic’ (press release, April 2020).
    • International Monetary Fund, ‘Pacific Islands Threatened by COVID-19’ (press release, 27 May 2020).
    • UNICEF ‘New COVID-19 test kits and equipment to boost Samoa’s response to global pandemic’ (press release, 19 June 2020).
    • World Bank ‘World Bank provides $5.1m for Samoa COVID-19 response’ (press release, 27 March 2020).
    • World Bank ‘World Bank Provides
      Additional $3.4 Million for Samoa’s Fight against COVID-19’ (press release, 24 April 2020).
    5 World Bank Project Information Document
    • World Bank Samoa COVID-19 Emergency Response Project – Project Information Document (PID) (World Bank, Report No PIDC29249, April 2020).
    6 WHO Checklist
    • World Health Organisation, WHO Checklist for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Planning (2005).

Beatrice Tabangcora

Assistant Lecturer at the University of the South Pacific School of Law

Biography

Beatrice Tabangcora was raised in Samoa. She is an Assistant Lecturer at the University of the South Pacific School of Law in Port-Vila, Vanuatu. She teaches introductory law courses and torts law at the undergraduate level. Prior to joining USP, Beatrice worked in Government ministries in both New Zealand and Vanuatu. Beatrice is an alumna of the University of the South Pacific and the Victoria University of Wellington. She graduated with a Bachelor of Laws degree (LLB) from USP in Vanuatu in 2017 and her Master of Laws degree (LLM) from the VUW in New Zealand in 2018. Beatrice’s research interests include torts law, human rights and legal pluralism in the South Pacific.

Introduction

Analysis

Conclusion