References

1 The Role of Religion in Countering Extremism: Notes from the Nordic countries – European Eye on Radicalization (eeradicalization.com); Sjöblom-Fodor, Gabriel & Speckhard, Anne. “Exceptionalism at the Extremes – a brief historical overview of Sweden’s ISIS foreign terrorist fighter problem.” ICSVE report, 2021 Could you please give some detail on what had gone on in Sweden previously for those narratives to resonate with youth?

2 Abdelgadit, Aala & Fouka, Vasiliki, “Political Secularism and Muslim Integration in the West: Assessing the Effects of the French Headscarf Ban” American Political Science Review, vol. 114:3 (2020), p. 707-720; When Discrimination Masquerades as Equality: The Impact of France’s Ban of Religious Attire in Public Schools – Shadow Report by the International Center for Advocates Against Discrimination (ICAAD) prepared for the United Nations Human Rights Committee on the occasion of its briefing on France, Country Report Task Force, 111th session (July 2014) INT_CCPR_ICO_FRA_17451_E.pdf (ohchr.org)

2 Education, secularism, and illiberalism: Marginalisation of Muslims by the French state – Jonathan Hauser, 2021 (sagepub.com) And a dominant discourse, es­pecially propagated through media, was that we cannot allow religious manifesta­tions – that prayer should not be allowed at work, no public celebration of various religious holidays etc – because to make provision for them, allow them to be part of Swedish society would be “backtrack­ing on our liberal successes”. It creates friction, especially within the young generation. Often, for immigrant groups that are especially marginal­ized, the media might be their only link to mainstream society: what they see on TV, social media or the radio is what they take for the attitude of all of society – when it might not be representative. Yet when they hear even just certain pol­iticians continuously saying “we’ll ban your religious practices”, they think it’s all of society against them. This creates a siege mentality.

3 Interview with social worker in Rinkeby, Stockholm, September 2021; Phone interview with social worker II, Stockholm, September 2021 This has led to some identifying more strongly with their faith, friendship networks, local immigrant areas, religious ideologies, or sometimes criminal gangs.

4 Interview with socially active imam, Stockholm September 2021; Interview with community informant, September 2021

5 Sjöblom-Fodor, Gabriel & Speckhard, Anne. “Exceptionalism at the Extremes – a brief historical overview of Sweden’s ISIS foreign terrorist fighter problem.” ICSVE report, 2021

6 Roel Meijer (ed.), Global Salafism. Islam’s New Religious Movement, Hust & Company, London, 2009

7 Atran, Scott. Talking to the Enemy: Faith, Brotherhood, and the (Un)Making of Terrorists. New York: Ecco Press, 2010

8 Interview with socially active imam, Stockholm September 2021

9 “Sweden is being shot up”, The Economist: https://economist.com/europe/2021/07/24/ sweden-is-being-shot-up

10 For further info, see for example “Crime as Jihad: Developments in the Crime-Terror Nexus in Europe”, Combating Terrorism Center at West Point: https://ctc.usma.edu/ crime-as-jihad-developments-in-the-crime-terror-nexus-in-europe/

11 Interview with socially active imam in Järva September 2021; Interview with community informant, Stockholm September 2021. If traditional com­munities can no longer fulfil a gatekeeper role, this could become a substantive threat in the coming years.

12 https://www.svt.se/nyheter/lokalt/skane/fiasko-for-malmos-arbete-mot-valdsbejakande-extremism; Projektet med nationell samordnare mot våldsbejakande extremism slutade i fiasko – DN.SE

13 Sjöblom-Fodor, Gabriel & Speckhard, Anne. “Exceptionalism at the Extremes – a brief historical overview of Sweden’s ISIS foreign terrorist fighter problem.” ICSVE report, 2021

14 Sjöblom-Fodor, Gabriel & Speckhard, Anne. “Exceptionalism at the Extremes – a brief historical overview of Sweden’s ISIS foreign terrorist fighter problem.” ICSVE report, 2021

Introduction

Analysis

End Notes